Small drinking water systems (SDWS) are widely identified as presenting particular challenges for drinking water management and governance in industrialised nations because of their small customer base, geographic isolation, and limited human and financial capacity. Consequently, an increasing number and range of scholars have examined SDWS over the last 30 years. Much of this work has been technocentric in nature, focused on SDWS technologies and operations, with limited attention to how these systems are managed, governed, and situated within broader social and political–economic contexts. This review seeks to provide a comprehensive overview of the governance dimensions of SDWS by drawing together existing literature relating to SDWS governance and exploring its key themes, research foci, and emerging directions. This overview is intended to provide guidance to scholars and practitioners interested in specific aspects of SDWS governance and a baseline against which researchers can position future work. The review identified 117 academic articles published in English-language journals between 1990 and 2016 that referred to some aspect of drinking water governance in small, rural, and Indigenous communities in industrialised nations. The articles’ content and bibliographic information were analysed to identify the locations, methods, journals, and themes included in research on SDWS governance. Further analysis of SDWS’ governance dimensions is organised around four questions identified as central to SDWS research: what governance challenges are experienced by SDWS, and what are their causes, solutions, and effects? Overall, the review revealed that the SDWS governance literature is piecemeal and fragmented, with few attempts to theorise SDWS governance or to engage in interdisciplinary, cross-jurisdictional conversations. The majority of articles examine North American SDWS, retain a technocratic orientation to drinking water governance, and are published in technical or industry journals. Such research tends to focus on the governance challenges SDWS face and proposed solutions to systems’ performance, capacity, and regulatory challenges. A small but growing number of studies examine the causal factors underpinning these governance challenges and their socio-spatially differentiated impacts on communities. Looking forward, the review argues for a more holistic, integrative approach to research on SDWS governance, building on a water governance framework.
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McFarlane, K. and L. Harris (2018). “Small systems, big challenges: Review of small drinking water system governance.”Environmental Reviews.https://doi.org/10.1139/er-2018-0033
Makey, L. and S. Awatere (2018). “He Mahere Pāhekoheko Mō Kaipara Moana –Integrated Ecosystem-Based Management for Kaipara Harbour, Aotearoa New Zealand.” Society and Natural Resources.
Shah, S.H., Rodina, L. (2018). Water ethics, justice, and equity in social-ecological systems conservation: lessons from the Queensland Wild Rivers Act. Water Policy 20(3)
Torio C, P.(2018). Leveling the playing field for metro Manila’s impoverished households. Water Policy 20(3)
Metro Manila’s water privatization is one of the world’s largest and longest-running privatization programs for a water utility. While traditional efficiency metrics show significantly improved service levels under this schema, local anti-privatization activists maintain that the program does not benefit the urban poor. Assessments from an equity lens offer a fresh perspective, using information from a consumer survey of 53,733 residential households, privatization reports, and field interviews. Results show that access and affordability remain critical concerns for impoverished urban households despite major service improvements. Philippine policy makers must address these twin concerns in order to ensure a level playing field for these vulnerable households.
Harris, L., L. Rodina, E. Luker, A. Darkwah & J. Goldin. (2016). Water Access in underserved areas of Accra, Ghana and Cape Town, South Africa. 2012 Survey Report. The University of British Columbia, Institute of Resources, Environment and Sustainability. Preprint PDF of the article here
Luker, E., Rodina, L., & Harris, L.M. (2016). Water Equity and Resilience Workshop, Stellenbosch, South Africa, August 24-26, 2016. Preprint PDF of the article here
Shah, S.H., Angeles, L.C., & Harris, L.M. (2017). Worlding the intangibility of resilience: The case of rice farmers in a water-stressed region of the Philippines. Elsevier, vol. 98(C), pages 400-412. Preprint PDF of the article here.